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Dominik Schröder

Fluctuations of rectangular Young diagrams of interlacing Wigner eigenvalues

László Erdős, Dominik Schröder

Int. Math. Res. Not. IMRN(2018)


We study the rectangular Young diagrams obtained from interlacing eigenvalues and show that the limiting shape is given by the well known Vershik-Kerov-Logan-Shepp curve.


We prove a new CLT for the difference of linear eigenvalue statistics of a Wigner random matrix HH and its minor H^\hat H and find that the fluctuation is much smaller than the fluctuations of the individual linear statistics, as a consequence of the strong correlation between the eigenvalues of HH and H^\hat H. In particular our theorem identifies the fluctuation of Kerov’s rectangular Young diagrams, defined by the interlacing eigenvalues of HH and H^\hat H, around their asymptotic shape, the Vershik-Kerov-Logan-Shepp curve. This result demonstrates yet another aspect of the close connection between random matrix theory and Young diagrams equipped with the Plancherel measure known from representation theory. For the latter a CLT has been obtained in [18] which is structurally similar to our result but the variance is different, indicating that the analogy between the two models has its limitations. Moreover, our theorem shows that Borodin’s result [7] on the convergence of the spectral distribution of Wigner matrices to a Gaussian free field also holds in derivative sense.